Migrate WordPress from Linux to Windows

Source: https://fireandknowledge.org/migrate-wordpress-linux-windows/

Migrate WordPress from Linux/Unix to Windows Server 2008

Backup files

first, you have to take backup all your WordPress files and database. There is free plugin “BackWPup”. After installation creates backup jobs to backup your files to computer.

  • By cPanel backup wizard, you can backup website home directory and downloads.
  • Backup for MySQL database and download.
  • Through FTP backup your WordPress directory individually from web server.
  • From WordPress interface use the select tools then select an export option to migrate your all WordPress posts, comments, tags etc into an XML file.

Software Requirement

To start from windows server 2008 you need a set of software. Web platform installer will tell you about a way to have the required software. Basically the following software is required to on Windows Server 2008 r2 :

  • PHP 5.3.19 (or better)
  • PHP Manager For IIS
  • IIS: CGI
  • MySQL Windows 5.1
  • MySQL Connector/Net
  • ASP.NET 2.0 Framework
  • URL Rewrite 2.0

Web platform installer will help you to install all software in one batch. Select WPI then through WPI choose application category. Now locate WordPress and click on “Add” then “Install” button. If an already required software is installed then WordPress Download start automatically. If WPI found that some software are missing then it will notify you. WPI automatically add those missing software to the download queue.

Your input will be required when setting up MYSQL. After all software installation, WordPress configuration windows appears. Now select development domain from drop down option of a website. Now eliminate value from the WordPress application name and click to continue button.

Now the WordPress is available on your developed domain. Installers will open default web browsers.

Now its time to install WordPress backup on the Windows server

WordPress has installed by WPI. Now open the wp-config.php file and note down these variables data : DB_NAME, DB_USER, DB_PASSWORD, DB_HOST. Record all these data now you allow deleting all installed file by WPI in your development file space except the web.config file. Now retrieve a backup file from WordPress website to development file space. Again you have to open a wp-config.php file and put the above variables with data you recently noted down. WordPress run faster when we use 127.0.0.1 instead of local host for DB_HOST.

Now release WordPress installer and laucnh development domain in browser. Check the instruction until the WordPress installation is complete. After completing, log in WordPress. You will notice that content, media and plugins are not there. Don’t worry. We have not restored database. So solution for restoring database we need to install WP-DBmanager plugin. Its installed, close browser for now.

Database File Updation

locate database backup file which has been created by BackWPup in root of your development file space. There you will found “.sql” extension, move file to “/wp-content/backup-db/” folder that is created by WP-Dbmanager. By Notepad++a text file editor, open database backup file. Now search live domain name for e.g.: yourdomain.com replace this by yourdomain.devserver.com. Its most important because WordPress will try to connect to that domain instead of development domain.

Now replace file path would be changed by websites/user/wwwroot/wp-content/. Hope you will do all necessary update, save and close a file.

WordPress Database Restoring

On development, website log in WordPress. Select manageDB section on left sidebar. Your database file should be placed here. Now restore file. Your database will now restore. After completion reloads WordPress you are now able to see media, pages and plugins and a lot of more.

Still, some media files paths updates are left. Go through to your development site and update which are still required.

Your website is running smoothly now change DNS for your live domain to windows server.

To make WordPress on the development server. You require some domain settings. Update both WordPress Address (URL) and Site Address (URL) fields. Add live domain now. Enjoy your WordPress on new windows server 2008.

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When to use an ORM framework?

From my personal experience, an ORM framework becomes more useful as the size and complexity of the project increases. If you just have a simple database with say 5 tables and 5-6 queries … setting up an ORM framework may be overkill. I would start considering the use of ORM when:

  • You have 3 or more programmers on a web application.
  • Your database consist of 10+ tables.
  • You have say 10+ queries to make.

ORM frameworks can’t do it all

If you think that using an ORM framework will allow you to forget SQL and never have to look back, think again. Once you jump into the ORM world, you will find that about 80-90% of your queries can be handled by the ORM generated objects. It is inevitable that at some point you will need to drop down and use some SQL or some SQL like query language.

In fact, ORM frameworks often have their own *QL query language that looks a lot like SQL. Doctrine, a popular PHP based ORM framework has DQL (Doctrine Query Language) and the very popular Hibernate (used in the Java and .Net world) has HQL. Going even further, Hybernate allows you to write straight SQL if need be.

Despite the need for a SQL like language in ORM frameworks, they can still be very valuable tools in your PHP work.

ORM Frameworks for PHP programmers

Not an exhaustive list, but here are a few ORM frameworks to consider:

Source: https://www.killerphp.com/articles/what-are-orm-frameworks/

Why choose Facebook’s ReactJS

Source: https://www.valuecoders.com/blog/technology-and-apps/5-reasons-choose-facebooks-reactjs/#

5 reasons to choose Facebook’s ReactJS

ReactJS is a JavaScript library that is open source and maintained by top IT company Facebook along with a developers’ community. This library(Also convert-able to framework) is used extensively in developing user interface for web applications. This particular framework was invented with a purpose to –

build large applications with data that changes again and again over time” .

There are a few tools we use regularly have proved to be quite useful. However, only a handful completely revolutionized our workflow. Facebook’s ReactJS is one of them. With plethora of frameworks available these days,   it’s hard to find a framework that could ultimately not become a dead end.  After researching at ValueCoders we suggest to go for ReactJS.

reactjs

Here are 5 major reasons why some of the giants like Facebook, Instagram, and Whatsapp are relying on ReactJs and what’s there for your upcoming project:

Reactjs is extremely efficient

Facebook’s Reactjs creates its own DOM (virtual) where your components live. This approach gives your developer high flexibility and amazing performance gains because React.js calculates what change is needed to be made in the DOM in advance and updates the DOM-trees accordingly. In this way, React.js avoids the costly DOM operations and does updates in an efficient manner.

Reactjs development

The JavaScript Library

The JSX syntax is a nice and healthy blend of JavaScript and HTML. It is used specifically in ReactJS. JSX simplifies the whole process of writing components for the websites and the HTML aspect allows your developers to render functions without concatenating strings.

Reactjs developer

The major advantage of ReactJS is, it makes proper use of native APIs and as a result the JavaScript makes the stack work across the platforms.

It’s awesome for SEO

One of the major challenges with JavaScript frameworks is, they are not at all search engine friendly. Though there have been some improvements in this area recently, however, that’s not very helpful.

Surprisingly, React.js stands out , as you are able to run React.js on the server and the virtual DOM will be  returned and rendered to the browser as a regular web page. No need for any other tricks!

Web & Mobile app development

Focused on User interface

React Native is much more focused on user interface unlike MeteorJS, Firebase and AngularJs . It gives your users a highly responsive interface with the help of Javascript interactions between the Native environment of the device and React Native. As a result, this increases the application’s load time and helps to keep it running very smoothly without any interruptions.

It’s easy and out of the box

When you start your project with Facebook’s React.js, don’t forget to install the official chrome extension of React.js. It makes debugging your app much more easier.

After installing the extension, you can have a direct look into the virtual DOM as if you were browsing a regular DOM tree in the element’s panel. Quite amazing!

Angular, React

Wrapping up

I hope these five major benefits of using ReactJS have convinced you about the uniqueness of the framework. If you are trying to develop a web application that needs to be SEO friendly and have a capacity of handling heavy moving traffic, then certainly ReactJS is the one for your next project!

THE ONLY CONSTANT IS CHANGE

In web development, the saying “The only constant is change” seems to be industry-defining. Web development is changing every second and 2018 will be no different.

User expectations are growing and it is more important than ever to build digital experiences  that are engaging, fun, and intuitive. Content needs to be accessible everywhere, in real-time, and, of course, on mobile devices.

In order to make that happen, new programming languages and frameworks are on the rise (Hello Vue JS!), extensions are becoming more compatible, and real time web apps are becoming more popular.

In order to keep up with what is happening, we want to show you the top 7 web development trends that are happening right now!

Here are the top 7 web development trends to watch out for in 2018

1. Vue JS is getting more popular

Vue was created in 2014 and is gaining in popularity in 2018. It is one of the most lightweight frameworks and it is fast.

VueJS is in a unique position as it is not backed by a major company. While React is backed by Facebook and Angular by Google, VueJS was created by one person, Evan You.

Evan describes his pre-launch and post-launch activities in a blog post, where he lists daily activities for the launch week.

Evan writes:

“I just launched an open source project that I’ve been working on for quite some time: Vue.js. It’s a library for building web interfaces using MVVM data bindings with a very simple API. If that sounds interesting to you, you can check out more details at vuejs.organd the GitHub repo. The motivation and reasoning behind the library is probably best explained in a separate post – this post is mostly about the personal experience of my first serious attempt at building, launching, marketing and maintaining an open source project.”

From the start, the documentation has been available in Chinese, resulting in VueJS high popularity in China.

Vue is now used by big companies such as Expedia, Alibaba, Nintendo, and GitLab. They now lists 20 people on their team page.

And recently, VueJS was listed among the 10 most-forked GitHub projects in 2017, even more popular than Facebook’s React. It also has over 77k stars on Github.

web-development-trends-vue-js

You can find a growing list of projects made with VueJs here: https://madewithvuejs.com/

2. Functional Programming benefits from Javascript improvements

Functional programming has been up and coming for years, but its impact will increase in 2018 again. Functional Programming (FP) describes the process of building software based on fundamental principles. Principles of functional programming include building software by composing pure functions. Shared state, mutable data and side effects are avoided in FP.

Functional code is more predictable, and some say ‘easier’ than object oriented code. It is definitely easier to test. If you have been working in Javascript for a while, you are very likely to have encountered functional programming principles and concepts, which encourage developers to decompose a program into small functions.

// classic
var numbers = [1, 5, 8, 13];
var doubledNumbers = [];

for (var i=0; i < numbers.length; i++) {
   doubledNumbers[i] = numbers[i] * 2;
}

// functional
var numbers = [1, 5, 8, 13];
var doubledNumbers = numbers.map(function(number) {
   return number * 2;
});

In 2018, Functional Programming especially benefits from the recent Javascript improvements such as ES6 and ES7.

Useful for functional programming are the following Javascript improvements:

Arrow functions: Arrow functions reduce boilerplate when writing functions.
We can simplify the example from above even more with arrow functions:

// functional ES6
const numbers = [1, 5, 8, 13];
const doubledNumbers = numbers.map((number) => number * 2);

Object/Array Spread: Object spread makes it really easy to avoid mutating objects, because it is so much easier to create new objects that contain existing values.  Here’s an example demonstrating it:

// old school
var oldState = { email: 'foo@example.com', comment: 'i really like javascript' };
var newState = {};
Object.assign(newState, oldState, { ip: '192.168.5.87' });

// with spread
const oldState = { email: 'foo@example.com', comment: 'i really like javascript' };
const newState = { ...oldState, ip: '192.168.5.87' };

async/await: Sometimes we do need to call functions that have side effects, even in functional programming – e.g. when we’re talking to our backend. Often we even have multiple calls that depend on each other. First there was callback hell, then came promises, and now async/await has come to make these things even easier.

3. Extensions get more compatible

Browser-extensions have been key add-ons for Chrome, Firefox and Co. for years. What is new in 2018 and what will continue to grow is browser extension compatibility.

What does that mean?

Browser Extensions are bits of code written in JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. They modify the functionality of a web browser and can add new features, change appearances or content of websites. Extensions used to be build for a specific browser, such as Chrome or Firefox. This is changing as Firefox is also supporting Chrome extensions and Edge is catching up on this as well.

In the developer manual of Mozilla you get an explanation of this cross-browser support system:

“Extensions for Firefox are built using WebExtensions APIs, a cross-browser system for developing extensions. To a large extent the API is compatible with the extension API supported by Google Chrome and Opera. Extensions written for these browsers will in most cases run in Firefox or Microsoft Edge with just a few changes. The API is also fully compatible with multiprocess Firefox.”

While Firefox extensions were using three different systems in the past, WebExtension APIs will now be the only way to develop Firefox extensions, making them available for other browser systems as well.

There has been some controversy around that because since the introduction of Firefox 57 (Quantum), the old extensions no longer work. Once a new version with a new API was released the old extension was gone.

To test the browser compatibility of your extension, you can make use of this simple extension compatibility tester.

4. Real-Time Web Apps are getting more popular

Real time web apps, based on websockets, have been around for years, but they are getting more and more popular. The reason: users want fast interactions and real time web apps are delivering on the need to share information instantly.

The main idea of real-time web apps is that a connection between client and server is left open, and the server pushes the new data once it’s there. Prior to real time web apps, clients had to check back manually to find out if something new had happened.

While this has been very common in the world of Node.js, this trend is really spreading to other languages and frameworks as well. Even Ruby on Rails, a framework which has always relied heavily on server side rendering, and very long ignored the rise of Javascript single-page-applications, has seen the need for realtime (as you can see in Basecamp 3), and incorporated it under the name “ActionCable”.

5. Progressive Web Apps

Progressive web apps are web apps with the functionality and design of mobile apps.

While the question has long been: How can we emulate web content for mobile – it is now the other way round. Web applications are trying to emulate what is working on mobile to give their (mobile) users a familiar touch and feel.

The idea is to create app-like experience on web pages or websites.

Here are some of the benefits, Google lists in its developer manual on why you should build a PWA:

When the Progressive Web App criteria are met, Chrome prompts users to add the Progressive Web App to their home screen.

Service workers enabled Konga to send 63% less data for initial page loads, and 84% less data to complete the first transaction!

Web push notifications helped eXtra Electronics increase engagement by 4X. And those users spend twice as much time on the site.

The ability to deliver an amazing user experience helped AliExpress improve conversions for new users across all browsers by 104% and on iOS by 82%.

6. Mastering Mobile Web Development

With mobile traffic increasing every day, responsive websites have become obligatory in the last years. In 2018, it is time to really master mobile development. The question is no longer: Does our website work on mobile? It is: How does it work on mobile best?

80% of internet users are owning a smartphone and they are using it. In fact, the average time spent on mobile devices is steadily increasing and has gone up to over 5 hours per day, according to TechCrunch.

Mastering mobile development and understanding how content can be best consumed on smaller devices will be a key challenge in 2018.

One key element to achieve that is that content must be easily navigable with one hand. Think about how you are using your smartphone. You might read articles while standing in the bus or subway and you might be texting when walking through supermarket aisles. Chances are you are doing some of these things with just one hand.

According to Steven Hoober, 49% of smartphone uses are executed with one hand, not cradled and not two handed. 49 percent of the time are we holding and browsing on our phone.

That means navigation has to be adapted for the thumb to reach every or the most part of the screen.

Web-Design-Trend-2018_

Thumb zones on different iOS devices. Illustration: Scott Hurff

7. Material Design

Material Design is a popular design trend that is likely to gain more popularity. It was developed by Google in an attempt to combine visual material and motion.

Material design is based on the modern, responsive Materialize CSS framework that comes in two forms: Materialize and Sass. It is based on Google’s material design language and provides components such as Parallax and Toast. It is compatible with all modern browsers and it is something that scores high in user experience design.

web-development-trends-gusto

Material design used at https://gusto.com/

Wrapping it up.

New frameworks, design trends, user expectations, and mobile developments are changing web development every day. The main thing is: Web development is responding to growing user expectations and design trends. Like Google’s material design, which is likely to gain more popularity in 2018. Or the need to communicate and work together in real time from everywhere.

No matter what you will be working on in 2018, these are exciting times and an exciting industry to be working in!

Web Development Trends in 2018

Source: https://clockwise.software/blog/web-development-trends-in-2018/

Trends in web development sometimes change faster than they can be implemented. That’s why it is important to be ahead of the game.

Don’t ask what are the trends today, ask what will be the trends tomorrow.

We have gathered the most credible predictions to show you what will be the trends in web development for the next year. If you are about to build or redesign your website, be sure that you are aware of them.

Progressive Web Applications

Progressive Web Apps

The world first heard about progressive web apps in 2015. The next year we met the pioneers of this technology, and in 2018 progressive Web Applications seem to have become the major competitor of native mobile apps.

Progressive web apps (or PWAs) are websites that feel like native mobile apps. Thanks to service workers, they can work offline, delivering an extraordinary user experience.

The users can save the shortcut to the website on their home screen if they use it frequently. As the most information is stored in the cache, the app loads instantly. Service workers run in the background and ensure that the latest information is cached every time the device is connected to the internet. The ability to work without any connection is one of the major advantages of progressive web apps.

PWAs are gaining traction and becoming a true web development trend. Some world’s leading companies prove the efficiency of this technology.

The e-commerce website Flipkart experienced a 70% increase in conversions and tripled the time spent on their site after the launch of the PWA version of the website. And the informational website The Washington Post reported an almostfivefold increase in user engagement.

PWAs have fewer features on iOS devices since the platform doesn’t support service workers. However, Flipkart and The Washington Post have proved that the progressive web apps significantly improve user engagement and conversions on all platforms. The UX of the PWAs plays the key role.

After such inspiring examples, the world awaits the hype around the progressive web applications in 2018. Even though the technology is quite new, its prospects look very promising.

Online customer support

Progressive Web Apps

2016 was the year of chatbots. 2017 is the year of helpful chatbots. Since there are thousands of bots out now, the quality of their services will be the next web development trend.

The prediction is that 85% of all customer interactions will proceed without human assistance till 2020.

A customer service chatbot becomes a must on almost every website. Whether you are selling electronics, crocheted toys or software development services, you should have a chatbot.

The conversational interface has transformed the way businesses interact with their customers. Having a bot on the company’s website ensures you are in contact with your client at any time, in any situation.

The customer service chatbot gives the client a feeling of interacting with a human. The bot is smart enough to answer frequently asked questions, to redirect clients to the needed page, to help them to choose the right product and even to proceed with payments. And all this without the round-the-clock customer support department.

In 2018 customers will prefer websites with appropriate online assistance. You can create a customer support department or get a chatbot that will guide a potential client through your website. The second option will allow you to save time and resources, and optimize the working process. So why not to join the hype around chatbots?

Static websites

Static Websites

You definitely remember the concept of a static website from the early years of the World Wide Web. All the first websites on the Internet were static.

But then the era of dynamic websites began.Websites became more functional and easier to update even for people with no technical background. At the same time, the development process became more complicated, as the extended functionality required communication with the server, so backend development got involved. Modern CMSs are the actual dynamic websites

Nowadays, the web is returning to its roots. Static websites are becoming the web development trend of 2018 again. But they have been improved by static site generators which allow combining the advantages of a static website and a CMS. The most popular of them, for example, HexoGitBook and Gatsby are written in JavaScript. There is also a huge variety of static site generators written in other programming languages. You can find out more and compare different solutions on the StaticGen website.

There are several reasons why static websites are back. They are faster, safer and cheaper. And they can satisfy the needs of different types of businesses. So, the prediction is obvious: static websites will experience a new reincarnation in 2018.

Single-page websites

Single-page websites

Another web development trend for simplicity is single-page websites. This solution allows putting all the content onto one long scrollable page, removing any clutter.

One-page websites have a bunch of advantages. They don’t challenge the visitor with complex navigation, multi-level menu, and tons of text. The essential information is all on one page. The user only has to scroll to it.

Of course, the use-cases of single-pagers are limited. This type of website will not suit e-commerce projects and blogs. At the same time, businesses can significantly benefit, presenting their services in a simplified and more engaging manner.

When visiting your one-page website the user consumes the information consecutivelyand doesn’t jump over the pages in the random order. You have certain control over the way he learns more about your company. Such websites are great for mobile use.

This type of website is definitely more user-friendly. At the same time, it allows to reduce the costs of the website: design is cheaper, development is cheaper, hosting is cheaper.

The single-pagers usually attract with extraordinary design, and powerful accents which bring an impressive increase in conversion. That’s why single page apps will gain traction in 2018.

Push notifications for websites

Push notifications for websites

Mobile apps notifications turned out to be a highly efficient means of user re-engagement. And recently this idea has been implemented for websites and is becoming new web development trend.

The workflow looks quite simple: the user visits a website and is offered to enable push notifications. The user will then be notified of any changes on the website (like a new blog post or a private message), even after he has closed the tab with that website.

The major benefit of such a technology is obvious – you can keep the user engaged without big efforts.

In some cases, push notifications can be a cheaper alternative toa mobile app. They deliver new information instantly and redirect the user to the website to find out more.

Push notifications beat emails, SMS and social media in providing up-to-date information. They are quick, come on time, and don’t require any complicated actions. They are just user-friendly.

Since push-notifications are just making the first steps in user engagement, you have a chance to become the pioneer of this technology in 2018.

Flash to HTML

Flash to HTML

In 2010 Steve Jobs published his thoughts on Flash and its future. It became clear that this technology won’t last long. Jobs’ statement about the death of Flash is quite popular for around two years now when YouTube defaulted to HTML5 players.

The major weakness of this technology is the incompatibility with mobile devices. An enormous amount of traffic is lost just because of the outdated technology.

If you still use Flash on your website, 2017 is the final call for you to change this. The best alternative is the well-known HTML5.

HTML5-based videos and games will reach a wider audience. And the general tendency is: HTML5 is becoming the universal format for all types of digital content.

It’s no use being sentimental about your old Flash website. Trust us, the HTML5 one will be much cooler and correspond with the latest web development trends.

Motion UI

Motion UI

Simplicity is the trend in recent years. This is also true for web design. Users are already tired of crazy GIFs and flashing ads, that’s why websites with moderate design get more appreciation.

At the same time, sophisticated motion UI is becoming more popular. Animations allow to add more style and enable you to distinguish your website from the thousands of others with the static UI.

There are several ways to add some life to your minimalistic website. Consider page header transitions, nice hovers, animated charts, background animations and modular scrolling. These and many otherelements may make your web presence much more enjoyable for users. The true artwork!

JavaScript – Angular 2 and Angular 4

AngularJS

JavaScript is the number one programming language for web applications. With dozens of JS-related technologies already existing and still in development, it will even strengthen its positions. The highly anticipated release of the last years Angular 2 becomes highly appreciated in modern web development.

We met Angular 2 in 2016. It is a complete rewrite of the AngularJS framework. The main advantages are improved modularity, app architecture scalability, improved dependencies injections, etc.

What to expect from Angular 2? Compared to its predecessor, it is faster and simpler in structure. Moreover, it follows the mobile-first approach, which is highly important in 2018. Many solutions are ready to use right out ofthe box, which reduces the development time.

Angular 2 recommends the use of TypeScript. This combination is by now the most productive way to develop medium and large web applications compatible with any modern web browser or mobile platform.

Angular 4 appeared in March 2017. This is not a complete rewrite of the second version, so they are quite similar. Angular 4 is faster and consumes less space, reducing the size of the generated code to around 60%. The animation package has been removed fromthe core and put into a separate package, which is an advantage for those who don’t use animation in their projects.

According to the roadmap, it is planned to release patch versions weekly with minorreleases following every several months. The next major release is planned for September 2017 – we are expecting the new Angular 5.0.0. We can predict that the changes will also influence the web development trends for the nearest future. So, don’t forget to follow the Angular Blog to stay tuned for the freshest updates. Or subscribe to our blog – we won’t miss a chance to write about this major update of one of our favourite frontend frameworks.

PHP 7.x – Laravel 5.x

Laravel

PHP remains the popular choice for website backend development. This programming language has improved its positions even further after the release of version 7.x. The latest update of the PHP framework Laravel 5.x is a recognized web development trend in 2018.

Laravel is the most popular open-source PHP web framework. All the benefits of it can be fully experienced on dynamic websites with complicated backend.

Laravel offers ready solutions for complex tasks. The variety of existing packages makes the development process faster and more reliable. Regular updates ensure that the framework complies with the current needs of the website owners and the requirements of the time.

The current stable version is Laravel 5.5, released in July 2017. Major updates occur every fewmonths.

This open-source framework has a large developer community, so you will never have to deal with the problems in your web app on your own.

If you want to find out more about Laravel along with other backend frameworks, don’t miss our article.

Conclusion

Nowadays having a website is more important for the company than having an office.

Being ahead of web development trends means attractingnew customers, satisfying existing customers and encouraging older customers to return.

Are you just about to create or redesign your website? Contact us to get it done according to the last word in web development.

How to share big files online for free

Wave goodbye to bloated emails

Top 10 ways to share files securely

Keep your files safe when sharing online

The internet is made for sharing and it’s perfectly understandable that the moment you snap a picture of a new addition to the family, or some other unmissable photo, you want to show it to your loved ones. Or you might want to share critical documents with work colleagues.

How can you make sure that whatever you share is seen only by the people you choose? Simply placing a password on files won’t always do – as you’d need a way of sending the password to the recipient securely in the first place!

In this article, we’re going to explore some quick and simple options for sharing your files safely over the net. These are not exclusive so don’t be afraid to combine them if necessary, or look into other ways to share files safely, too.

1. Dropbox

Most Dropbox users know that they can click ‘Share’ next to a file or folder to generate a link to allow other people to download that file or folder.

This is especially useful when you want to share files that are too large to email. Only people who have the link will be able to access the data, and you can delete the link at any time.

If you have a paid Dropbox Pro account (or a business one) you can password protect individual files and folders, as well as set the link to expire automatically.

2. Password protection

Many applications such as the cross-platform word processor LibreOffice Writer contain an option to password protect documents. Usually you’ll be asked to type in the password twice to make sure it’s entered correctly. Note it down carefully.

The specific steps you need to follow plus the strength of the encryption used will vary depending on the piece of software in question. Check with the developer (look for the support section of the website) if you need help with anything. Ideally documents should be protected with at least 128-bit AES encryption.

You will of course need a way to send the password to the recipient securely after sending the file.

3. PGP/GPG

PGP and GPG are two programs which make use of public key cryptography to send files securely.

They get around the problem of having to send someone the password of a file you’ve encrypted by using a ‘public key’ to encrypt documents and a ‘private key’ to decrypt them. Your private key never leaves your computer but anyone can use your public key to send you files.

Setting this up can be tricky for less tech-savvy types. The easiest way is probably to install the cross-platform email client Mozilla Thunderbird, then use the free add-on Enigmail which has a handy step-by-step wizard.

4. OTR

OTR (Off the Record) messaging is a feature that can be added to a number of messaging programs such as the cross-platform app Pidgin.

Messages are encrypted before leaving your machine, so you can safely send files to your correspondent. You can also use security codes to make sure no one is sitting between you and them, intercepting your messages (known as a ‘man-in-the-middle’ attack).

OTR messaging is available as a plug-in for Pidgin, as mentioned, but is also built into other messenger clients such as FrozenChat for Android.

5. One-Time Pad

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To use a One-Time Pad, first you must create a list of random numbers by rolling dice or using a computer. Your correspondent does the same, then you both meet and give each other a copy of the pads.

When you want to send your correspondent a file, you can then combine the random data in the pad with it, and send. The recipient can then use their copy of your pad to take away the random data to reveal the file.

This is tricky to get right, but theoretically it’s perfectly secure. There are a few programs as listed here, such as the Paranoia plug-in for the Pidgin messaging app, which can automate the process for you.

6. LastPass

LastPass is an excellent service which stores all of your usernames and passwords in one place. One of its niftiest features is that you can choose to share a login – say, for Google Photos – via email.

Part of the beauty of LastPass is that if you choose you can allow your correspondent to log in and access files without them seeing the password. Your connection is also protected by SSL so there’s very little chance anyone could connect to your data in the same way. In short, this is one of the most respected password managers out there, and with good reason.

7. Snapchat

Snapchat users will be aware that photos sent over the app theoretically self-destruct after a certain length of time. The recipient can take a screenshot of important information, however, and you’ll receive a notification that this has been done.

Snapchat updated its terms and conditions in 2014 to say that the firm may store copies of images you send. Ideally, you should use this app in combination with another of the methods listed here – for instance, you could encrypt a spreadsheet and send via email, then transmit the password separately via Snapchat. Splitting the file and the key in this way means only your correspondent will be able to view the data.

8. Resilio Sync

Resilio Sync (formerly BitTorrent Sync) synchronises files using the BitTorrent protocol. The advantage of this is that instead of having to share files via a cloud service like Dropbox, files can be synced directly between two devices.

Provided both your device and your correspondent’s are online, files can be shared in real-time and the connection is secured by 128-bit AES. BitTorrent is particularly good for sharing large files and folders as it was originally designed for that purpose. More devices can be added to share files with others if you wish.

For more details and to download clients for both desktop and mobile platforms visit the Resilio website as linked below. The client is not open source so there’s no easy way for security experts to check the code used for any vulnerabilities.

9. SSH

SSH (Secure Shell) is a network protocol which establishes an encrypted tunnel allowing people to log in to a computer remotely. It can be used to upload and download files as well as run commands on the target computer.

If you have a server, you can give your correspondent their own username to log in and access files you’ve uploaded. Alternatively you could create an account for them on your own machine so they can connect to you.

Mac and Linux users will be pleased to hear they can use SSH directly from the Terminal app. Windows users can download the free program Putty to do the same.

10. SFTP

Continuing the trend of obscure acronyms, SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) is an extension of the SSH protocol used specifically for transferring files. In order to make use of it, you need to have access to a server, for instance by renting one from a provider like Hosted FTP.

You’ll be supplied with a username and password that you can use to connect and upload/download files. Most operating systems integrate FTP into the file explorer so you can move, edit and copy files onto the server just as you would with an ordinary folder. Although the connection is encrypted, documents stored on the server aren’t, so consider protecting them with a password before uploading.

Source: http://www.techradar.com/news/top-10-ways-to-share-files-securely